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Bad Science

New method tested as cancer vaccine

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I've included this in the "Bad Science" section of the site because there were a lot of assumptions made without testing those assumptions.

Looking only at the size of a organ (which is what they did to determine the outcome) can't tell you anything about what is going on inside that organ. It could be healthy, or it could be wasting away but maintaining size due to inflammation or tumor growth.

It is also disturbing that both the disease and the treatment were genetically altered.  This means that there is likely little relation to actual real disease in humans.

The surprise is that the mouse DNA didn't work, but the human DNA did.  That would tend to indicate that our whole theory on immunity is not quite right.

Also if our theories on immunity are correct then there would most definitely be an autoimmune reaction.  They didn't see one, so either their test was faulty or our understanding of immunity is faulty.  Or perhaps a little of both.

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Here is the report, you decide:

BBC News has reported that a vaccine offers hope for prostate cancer sufferers. The broadcaster reported on a new approach to developing cancer vaccines in which “DNA from healthy cells was used to create a vaccine which cured 80% of mice”.

During the research, scientists genetically engineered a virus so that it would contain a library of DNA from a normal human prostate. They found that when they injected this virus into mice that had prostate tumours, the mice’s immune system recognised the prostate tumour and cured the tumours in 80% of cases. They found that a virus containing a human prostate DNA library was better at curing the tumours than a virus containing mouse prostate DNA. The virus, when injected into the bloodstream, did not kill normal non-cancerous prostate cells in mice.

This research has in effect produced a vaccine that could target the immune response to prostate tumours in mice without having to identify the specific proteins on the surface of tumour cells, which would be necessary to make conventional vaccines. The research is preliminary and, as it was carried out in mice, further research is needed to see whether this approach could be used safely and effectively in humans. It is far too early to suggest that this experimental study offers hope for a vaccine against prostate cancer or any other cancer.

 

Where did the story come from?

The study was carried out by researchers from the Mayo Clinic in the USA, the Cancer Research UK Clinical Centre in Leeds, the University of Surrey and the Institute of Cancer Research, London. It was funded by The Richard M. Schulze Family Foundation, the Mayo Foundation, Cancer Research UK, the US National Institutes of Health and a grant from the Terry and Judith Paul charitable body.

BBC News summarised this complex research well. The coverage in the Daily Mirror and Daily Mail of this preliminary animal research was overly optimistic. In particular, the Mirror’s statement that “cancer vaccines could become the next generation of therapy after a new method of treatment was discovered” does not reflect the findings and implications of this early-stage research.

 

What kind of research was this?

This experimental research in cell cultures and animals aimed to develop a vaccine that could induce an immune response to tumour cells but spare normal healthy tissue.

The researchers said that therapies harnessing the immune system (immunotherapies) to fight cancer have been hindered by a lack of knowledge of antigens that are specific to tumours and not found on normal tissue. Antigens are proteins or chemicals that are recognised by the body’s immune system as foreign, triggering an immune response.

The researchers’ theory was that if they took a library of DNA from healthy prostate tissue and inserted it into a virus that caused the body to mount an immune response, then the DNA would code for a variety of potential prostate-specific antigens. The virus itself would cause an immune response and as the virus contained DNA from prostate cells the immune system would see prostate cells (including prostate tumour cells) as foreign and target them too. This would mean that they could target the immune response to prostate cells without having to inject the virus directly into the prostate.

A potential problem with this approach is that as the body would attack normal healthy prostate tissue (autoimmunity). The researchers investigated whether they could treat mice with this virus after they had been induced to have prostate tumours and whether the mice were spared from autoimmune attack of normal tissue if the virus was injected into the bloodstream rather than directly into the tumour.

 

What did the research involve?

The researchers used genetic engineering techniques to create a library of DNA from normal human prostate cells and inserted it into a virus, called the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). To see whether the virus would enter cells and become active, the researchers infected a cell line (derived from hamster kidney cells) with their virus and looked at whether the prostate genes they had inserted became active. They also looked at how much virus they needed to add to the cells to produce detectable prostate gene activity.

The researchers then injected the virus into either the prostates of mice or intravenously into the bloodstream of mice, to see whether this would cause immune responses. They were particularly interested in whether there were autoimmune responses (where the body’s immune system starts to attack itself).

The researchers then injected these mice with prostate tumour cells to induce the formation of prostate tumours. They also injected another group of mice with skin cancer tumour cells to see whether any effects of the virus were specific to prostate tumour cells.

They then looked at the immune response when injecting the virus into the tumour compared to injecting the virus into the bloodstream and whether the treatment could cure the prostate tumours in the mice.

 

What were the basic results?

The researchers injected the prostates of mice with either the virus containing the prostate DNA or a saline solution, as a control. They found that, compared to the control injection, the virus caused enlargement of the prostate after two days but lowered the weight of the prostate after 10 days. This treatment also caused a white blood cell immune response in the mice. The researchers looked at the effect of injecting the virus into the bloodstream of the mice. They found that, in contrast to injecting the prostate with the virus, after 60 days the prostate was the same size as in the controls. The researchers said this showed that the treatment had not caused autoimmune responses.

The researchers injected the mice with prostate tumour cells to induce the growth of prostate tumours. They found that mice that had the virus injected into their bloodstream after the tumours were established produced a type of immune cell called a T helper 17 cell. These mice had increased survival, and the injections cured the tumours more effectively compared to injecting the virus directly into the tumour. Nine intravenous injections of the virus cured over 80% of mice with prostate tumours. The virus that contained prostate-specific DNA did not have an effect against other types of tumour, such as skin tumours.

After testing mice that had been injected with a virus containing a human prostate DNA library, the researchers looked at whether a virus containing a mouse prostate DNA library would give similar protection against prostate tumours. Although the virus containing the mice DNA offered some protection against tumours, the virus containing human DNA offered better protection.

 

How did the researchers interpret the results?

The researchers said that their research showed it was possible to vaccinate mice against existing tumours using a wide variety of antigens coded for by a library of DNA, delivered within a virus that stimulates an immune response. The introduction of this DNA library potentially allows the body to select antigens that could be tumour-specific.

The researchers say that “virus-expressed DNA libraries” from normal tissues of either humans or animal origins can be readily constructed for off-the-shelf use, and can be easily delivered into cells to potentially protect against prostate tumours.

 

Conclusion

This animal study used an interesting approach to develop a vaccine which primed the body to target prostate tumours without the need to identify prostate-specific antigens.

As this was an animal study, further research will be needed to see if this technique could be used in humans. One finding was that the vaccine worked better if the mice were injected with a virus containing a DNA library from the human prostate rather than the mouse prostate. Research would be needed to see what type of DNA would prime the best response to prostate tumours in humans.

In the study, the researchers found that the virus did not lead to an autoimmune response in the mice. However, further research would be necessary to see whether it could be safe to use in humans as there may be differences in the immune systems of mice and humans.

 

Links To The Headlines

Vaccine hope for prostate cancer sufferers. BBC News, June 20 2011

Cancer vaccine discovery can zap tumours. Daily Mirror, June 20 2011

The prostate cancer vaccine that targets tumours with an '80 per cent success rate'. Daily Mail, June 20 2011

Links To Science

Kottke T, Errington F, Pulido J et al. Broad antigenic coverage induced by vaccination with virus-based cDNA libraries cures established tumors. Nature Medicine, 2011

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Last Updated on Wednesday, 18 January 2012 15:40
 

Do hammocks aid sleep? Don't be swayed...

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Another headline gone a stray:

“If you struggle to get off to sleep at night, maybe you should try reclining in a hammock,” said the Daily Mail.

The news is based on a small sleep study which found that lying on a slowly rocking bed can help the transition into sleep, and that rocking also alters the type of sleep experienced. Researchers say that these changes in brain and sleep behaviour could explain why humans find rhythmic rocking to be soothing, for example when mothers rock their babies.

While this research is interesting, it was only a small study and its results were based on 10 healthy men who did not normally have sleep problems. It also only looked at the effect of rocking on a 45-minute afternoon nap rather than a whole night’s sleep. Given the limited scope of this research, it remains to be seen whether rocking might be able to help treat sleep disorders such as night-time insomnia.

 

Where did the story come from?

The study was carried out by researchers from the University of Geneva, Geneva University Hospital and the University of Lausanne in Switzerland, and the Université Paris Descartes in France. It was funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation. The study was published in the peer-reviewed scientific journal Current Biology.

The media generally reported the story accurately. However, many articles gave the impression that the study took place in a hammock, whereas it was performed in a type of slowly moving bed. It should also be noted that none of the study participants had sleep disorders such as insomnia. It has yet to be determined whether rocking could help treat insomnia.

 

What kind of research was this?

This small-scale sleep study compared sleep during an afternoon nap in which a bed was either stationary or rocking. It aimed to demonstrate that gentle rocking can change types of sleep experienced during a short afternoon nap. The study’s design was appropriate, but the study would have to be performed in greater numbers of participants before general conclusions could be drawn.

 

What did the research involve?

Twelve healthy male volunteers, aged 22–38 years old, had two 45-minute afternoon naps (lasting from 2.30pm to 3.15pm) on a bed that either remained stationary or rocked gently at a rate of one full rock every four seconds.

The participants were good sleepers who did not have excessive daytime sleepiness and did not normally nap in the afternoon. Participants all had low anxiety levels and had enjoyed a good quality and quantity of sleep for three nights before each afternoon nap. This was determined using sleep questionnaires and from measurements of motor activity.

The two naps were at least one week apart, and the order in which the participants slept on the rocking or stationary bed was randomly determined. The naps took place in complete darkness, at a controlled temperature (21°C) and with the same amount of background noise (37 decibels). During the naps, the researchers continuously took multiple measurements of physiological changes and brain function. Sleep stages and brain activity were then classified from the measurements by sleep experts who were blinded to the experimental conditions. The volunteers also completed sleep questionnaires and their motor activity was recorded.

The data from 10 of the 12 participants was analysed. The data from one participant was excluded because he had elevated anxiety levels which prevented him from falling asleep during one of the naps, and technical problems prevented sleep measurements from being recorded during one other participant’s nap.

 

What were the basic results?

Eight participants rated the rocking bed as more pleasant than the stationary bed, one participant found both conditions equally pleasant and one preferred the bed stationary.

The researchers found that rocking accelerated sleep onset. Sleep normally happens in cycles of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM). NREM is further divided into three types: N1, N2 and N3. A sleep cycle normally follows the pattern: N1-N2-N3-N2-REM.

The researchers found that N1 sleep duration was shorter on the rocking bed (about 30% of total sleep time) compared to on the stationary bed (about 50%). The duration of N2 sleep was greater on the rocking bed (about 66% of total sleep time) than on the stationary bed (about 46%). Rocking also modified brain activity during N2 sleep. The brain activity observed was characteristic of deep sleep. These brain changes were observed across all the volunteers.

 

How did the researchers interpret the results?

The researchers suggest that rhythmic rocking enhances “synchronous activity” in the brain, which could “promote the onset of sleep and its maintenance”.

 

Conclusion

This study showed that falling asleep is aided by gentle rocking, and that rocking can affect the sleep cycle. However:

  • This was a small study with only 12 participants, of whom only 10 where included in the final analysis. Also, the study only included male participants.
  • A previous study have looked at whole-night sleep and found that rocking does not consistently affect N1 sleep, although it did reduce the percentage of the deeper-stage N2 sleep. However, they did not look at how the ease of falling asleep was affected.
  • None of the volunteers in this study had any problems falling asleep. It remains to be determined whether rocking can be used to treat insomnia or other sleep disorders.

 

 

Links To The Headlines

Rock-a-bye baby: Why gentle swinging motion of hammocks sends us to sleep. Daily Mail, June 21 2011

Rocking motion fosters deep sleep, study claims. The Independent, June 21 2011

Why hammocks are best for an afternoon nap. The Daily Telegraph, June 21 2011

Hammocks best for a perfect nap. Daily Express, June 21 2011

 

 

Links To Science

Bayer L, , Constantinescu I, Perrig S et al. Rocking synchronizes brain waves during a short nap. Current Biology, Volume 21, Issue 12, R461-R462, 21 June 2011

 

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Last Updated on Wednesday, 18 January 2012 16:24
 

City living, stress and mental health

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Yet another inconclusive research project.  It is an example of going through the motions of research without actually designing an experiment that could be meaningful.

Here is what was reported:

People who live in the country are happier, according to the Daily Mail. The article said: “city dwellers think differently from people who live in the country – and are more likely to suffer mental illness as a result.”

The news is based on German research that compared patterns of brain activity seen in response to social stress in urban and rural dwellers. The study’s authors say previous studies have shown that mental health issues, such as schizophrenia, anxiety and mood disorders, are generally more common in people who live in or grow up in cities. To test this theory, the researchers exposed volunteers to negative verbal messages and asked them to complete puzzles while having their brains scanned. The study found that city dwellers had greater activity in certain areas of the brain involved in negative mood and stress.

However, the study’s results should be viewed in context. The study did not assess the participants’ happiness or general stress levels, the brain activity seen does not necessarily equate to a higher risk of mental illness, and the negative messages used do not necessarily represent real-life situations. Further research will be needed to discover the precise mechanisms through which urban living might affect mental disorders.

 

Where did the story come from?

The study was carried out by researchers from the University of Heidelberg in Germany and McGill University in Canada. The research was funded by the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme, the German Research Foundation and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research.

The study was published in the peer-reviewed scientific journal Nature.

The findings of this study were generally misinterpreted by the media. Many news sources implied that researchers had found that urban environments actively cause mental illness. This study’s design is not capable of proving causal relationships, but can only describe associations between different factors.

In addition, the study did not measure relative levels of stress in urban and rural settings, and none of the study participants had a mental illness. The Daily Mail reported that rural residents were “happier”. However, this conclusion is not supported by this research, which did not measure or investigate happiness in urban or rural dwellers. The Guardian, however, accurately represented both the study’s findings and limitations that mean it cannot prove causality.

 

What kind of research was this?

The authors of the study reported that previous epidemiological studies have shown urban residents to have a higher risk of many psychological disorders, including depression, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders. This series of small cross-sectional studies explored this theory by comparing the impact that social stress has on the brain activity of urban and rural residents.

While several characteristics of the relationship between urban living and the prevalence of mental illness support the theory that city living may directly influence mental health, this has not been conclusively shown. For example, it is not understood how urban living might have this effect. This study investigated how people process social stress, one potential mechanism through which urban living might affect metal health.

Although this study’s design allowed the researchers to identify differences in how urban and rural residents processed simulated social stress, it couldn’t determine whether urban living caused these differences. Also, as mental health outcomes were not assessed in this study, it cannot tell us whether any differences found might affect mental health over time.

 

What did the research involve?

Researchers carried out a series of three experiments which examined the impact of social stress on brain activity in individuals living in rural settings, small towns and urban areas. The first experiment exposed the individuals to stress by requiring them to solve arithmetic problems under time pressure and receiving negative feedback from investigators between tests through headphones. Stress levels were assessed by measuring levels of the hormone cortisol, and the participants’ heart rate and blood pressure. Individuals completed the tasks while undergoing a brain-scanning procedure called functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which is capable of detecting the activity occurring in each region of the brain. Researchers compared the patterns of brain activity in rural, small-town and urban dwellers, as well as those who were raised in urban and other settings.

The second experiment used a different problem-solving test under similar social stress conditions (continuous negative feedback through video), and recorded and analysed brain activity in the same manner. The final control experiment carried out another series of problem-solving tests but without any social stress conditions, in order to be sure that brain-activity patterns were due to the stress-inducing interventions and not the test itself.

The first experiment included 32 people, the second 23 people, and the third 37 people. None of the participants had a mental illnesses or a high risk of mental illness.

 

What were the basic results?

Across all the experiments, the same patterns of brain activity emerged, with several regions of the brain consistently activated during social stress situations:

  • Current city living was associated with activity in the amygdala, a region of the brain that signals negative emotions and environmental threats. This area has also been suggested to play an important role in anxiety disorders, depression and violent behaviour. Amygdala activity was highest in city dwellers, followed by town dwellers and finally rural residents.
  • Urban upbringing was associated with increased activity in another area of the brain that is reported to be a key regulator of negative mood and stress. The level of activity was greater with more exposure to urban upbringing.

 

How did the researchers interpret the results?

The researchers concluded that the association between current city living and increased activity in the amygdala was supported by previous epidemiological research findings.

While the study found that there was increased activation within specific brain regions in response to social stress, the researchers say that this cannot be directly linked to psychological disorders without confirmation through further research. Importantly, they point out that their study did not look at the impact of stress on brain activity in individuals with mental illness.

 

Conclusion

This study examined the activity of specific brain regions in response to simulated social stress. It found that brain activity differed between individuals raised in or living in urban areas and rural dwellers.

However, the study’s design means that it cannot determine why these differences in brain activity occurred, nor whether the differences are linked to mental health problems or stress in real-life situations (as some newspapers implied).This study has further limitations:

  • It was not able to confirm whether the observed brain differences existed in individuals before they came to live in cities.
  • Only a small number of people took part in all the experiments. Therefore, the results should be interpreted cautiously, as a small sample size increases the uncertainty of the findings.
  • Individuals participating in the study were healthy volunteers from Germany, and grew up and lived in a relatively safe and prosperous country. It may not be appropriate to apply the results to other settings.
  • The stress-inducing factor in this experiment was only a model that approximated stressful social interactions. However, it is debatable how closely it represents specific environments or momentary social interactions in the real world.

Discovering underlying social mechanisms that might cause the higher rates of schizophrenia, anxiety and mood disorders observed in urban residents could have important implications for healthcare and patient wellbeing. However, although this research provides a valuable insight into possible interactions between a stressful environment and neurological processes, it cannot confirm that this actively leads to mental health problems. The current research does not provide sufficient evidence to inform any policy decisions at this time.

Analysis by Bazian.

 

Links To The Headlines

City living affects your brain, researchers find. The Guardian, June 23 2011

City dwellers suffer most stress. The Daily Telegraph, June 23 2011

A rural life is better: Living in a concrete jungle is stressful and make you vulnerable to depression. Daily Mail, June 23 2011

Country folk 'happier'. Daily Express, June 23 2011

 

Links To Science

Lederbogen F, Kirsch P, Haddad L et al. City living and urban upbringing affect neural social stress processing in humans. Nature, Volume:474, Pages: 498–501

 

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Last Updated on Thursday, 26 January 2012 22:41
 

Blind Researchers Look at Diabetes

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More bad science:

Researchers have developed a “nasal spray vaccine” that might stop children developing diabetes, the Daily Express has reported. The “remarkable breakthrough” can stop the body’s immune system from attacking insulin-producing cells, the paper reported.

The report is based on a small study in which researchers looked at whether giving insulin as a nasal spray to adults recently diagnosed with type 1 diabetes could stop their immune system from killing the cells that produce insulin, a hormone needed by the body to control blood sugar levels.

The study found that nasal insulin did not prevent the loss of insulin-producing cells, although it did seem to reduce the levels of antibodies (proteins which are part of the immune system) that target insulin. Researchers said this suggests that it might suppress the immune response to insulin.

Of course what it really means is that the immune system was compromised and weakened.  This is the natural result of any type of "vaccine" that man makes.

It is just irresponsible that the Daily Express called this a "remarkable breakthrough".

It is common knowledge that any poison introduced into the human body will activate and then suppress the immune system.  How come people who are trying to make vaccines don't know this simple truth?

We have to assume that it is institutional blindness, because their jobs depend on the vaccine fantasy.

Where did the story come from?

The study was carried out by researchers from the Institute of Medical Research and the Royal Melbourne Hospital, both in Victoria, Australia, and the St Vincent de Paul Hospital and University Paris Descartes, both in Paris, France. It was funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, by a Victoria State government grant and by France’s INSERM research programme. The study was published in the peer-reviewed medical journal Diabetes.

The study’s findings were described inaccurately by the Daily Express. The newspaper’s assertion that researchers had developed a nasal spray vaccine that can stop children developing diabetes was not supported by the research, which looked at adults who already had a rare form of the condition.

This randomised controlled trial (RCT) looked at whether using an insulin nasal spray could prevent the destruction of insulin-producing cells in adults with early-onset, non-insulin-requiring type 1 diabetes.

The researchers say that adults with recent-onset diabetes who do not yet need insulin injections (because the body can still produce some insulin) provide an opportunity to study whether nasal insulin can reduce the immune response normally seen in type 1 diabetes.

The researchers recruited 52 adults aged 30-75 years old who had been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes in the previous year. When they entered the study, all participants were controlling their glucose levels using diet and oral drugs but did not yet need insulin injections. They were randomly split into two groups. Over 10 consecutive days, and then on two consecutive days a week for 12 months, one group of participants used a self-administered dose of insulin through a metered-dose nasal spray, equivalent to 1.6mg of insulin daily. The other group was given a placebo spray.

Overall, the blood tests indicated that the insulin-producing cells declined by 35% over the 24 months, with no difference between the nasal insulin and the placebo group. Twenty-three of 52 participants (44%) progressed to having insulin injections.

However, the two groups differed in their blood levels of insulin autoantibodies (IAA) when given insulin injections. The insulin antibody response was “significantly blunted in a sustained manner” in those who had received nasal insulin. This indicates that, in the participants who took nasal insulin, fewer antibodies were created when they were given insulin injections.

Levels of other antibodies associated with diabetes, called GADA and IA2A, were similar at the start of the study in the two groups and remained unchanged throughout the study.

The researchers say that although giving nasal insulin did not stop the loss of insulin-producing cells, there was evidence from the antibody test for IAA that it made the immune system more tolerant to insulin and could, therefore, be used to prevent diabetes in people at risk. They say that their study provides the first evidence that nasal insulin could alter the immune response to insulin. They suggest that by suppressing the immune response to insulin, this method could be used to protect people at risk of type 1 diabetes, particularly children.

Unfortunately their study showed no such thing.  It is all wishful thinking.

Why didn't the researchers realize that their study seems to have proved that their assumptions about antibodies that destroy insulin-making cells are wrong?  A reduction in antibodies had no effect on the loss of insulin-making cells.  The basic assumptions of the study are wrong.  That is plain for anyone to see.  The researchers must be blind.

Why don't they go back to the drawing board and realize that diabetes, like any other disease, is a result of imbalance in the human body.  The only way to really correct an imbalance is to re-institute balance.  Eliminate toxins, and eat well balanced healthy foods (as balanced by nature).  Exercise and strive in all ways to return the body to normalcy (something that no drug can ever do).
Links To The Headlines:

Nasal sprat 'could stop diabetes'. Daily Express, June 15 2011

Links To Science:

Fourlanos S, Perry C, Gellert SA et al. Evidence That Nasal Insulin Induces Immune Tolerance to Insulin in Adults With Autoimmune Diabetes. Diabetes, VOL. 60, April 2011.

 

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There is a tonic that balances all the major systems of the body.  It was formulated using only tonic (meaning balancing) herbs.  It was formulated without the use of alcohol or other substances that can destroy the tonicity of the herbs.  Most herbal concoctions are created using alcohol or other chemicals that destroy the balancing abilities of the herbs.  To learn more about this wonderful herbal tonic stay tuned.  We will soon publish a whole article on it.

 

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Last Updated on Tuesday, 04 October 2011 17:50
 


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